Sunday, December 28, 2014

From Flatness to Trinity a depart from the Materialistic view

This is a Recap about what this Blog is about. From the multiple posts a try to call attention to the restriction of the pure materialistic view that science has today, mainly in the domain of Biology. The Richard Dawkins book The Selfish Gene is a very good example of that, is a deepening into the material, from Organisms to its Genes, never embracing nothing that isn't materialistic...

The day that this materialistic Flatness view changes to a Trinitarian one, everything will become clear, until then, questions like, why sex is so dominant in Eukaryotes, or, do Species exist, will continue to be a mystery!

So, the points that this Blog is about are the following:

1. Species are a Product of Evolution restricted to Eukaryotes

It's admitted that the origin of Eukaryotes is the biggest milestones in evolution since life exists in the planet. It's also recognized that Sexual Selection appeared shortly after the beginning of Eukaryotic life. This form of Speciation is unique, and so unique that only now we start to give the right answer about the reality of Species. Despite many skepticism that persists, you only need to search for the question "are species real?" to find many scientific articles with the absolutely right answer:
"Claridge and I agree that the entities we call species are real biological units." - Species Are Not Uniquely Real Biological Entities, Brent D. Mishler
But what it means REAL, real means real as an Organism is, it means that despite not being material it exists and exerts power and control in a way that no Organism ever could. Well, with Species Natural Selection acts no more on Organisms, it acts on this new entity we call Species. But what works on Organisms if not Natural Selection? Sexual Selection does, in a way that protects Species from deviation, allowing the existence of extremely complex organisms despite low replication fidelity, and in this sense we have the beginning of a new Scheme, the Trinitarian scheme.

You just need to recognize this to understand and have answers to questions that otherwise you will never do.

2. Species are the Physical and Psychological blueprint of its Organisms

With this new trinitarian scheme, organisms are no more than the Species infrastructure, in its relationship with the environment. So when we talk in Physical and Psychological we are always talking of Eukaryotes, as you may well know, the REALITY of psychology and species isn't applicable to Prokaryotes.

So, organisms actions, that are classified as irrational, are so because the flatness of the materialistic view, that sees only the organism self interest, and so, all rationality is centered in this materialistic organism. If you consider the Species best interests you realize that what at first sound irrational is absolutely rational, simple because Species and Organisms doesn't necessary share the same interests!

3. The Species Will overcomes the Organism Will

It's a little bit redundant this affirmation, because if something defines other something, the second one is the result not the cause. For example, if you consider that Species exist for more than 2.000 million years (Sexual Reproduction) and at the same time, Homo Sapiens Sapiens only exists for 200.000 years is easy to grasp the power ratio of 0,01%, and sure this is an overestimation, because in reality time will not change the power ratio. An infrastructure exists to be used...

4. Only Eukaryotes have Species, Prokaryotes don't

The actual common definition of Species haven't change and never will, because there are no Species outside Sexual Selection. So the definition of Species as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring will remain despite all the efforts to force species into Prokaryotes.
The species concept is a recurrent controversial issue that preoccupies philosophers as well as biologists of all disciplines. Prokaryotic species concept has its own history and results from a series of empirical improvements parallel to the development of the techniques of analysis. Among the microbial taxonomists, there is general agreement that the species concept currently in use is useful, pragmatic and universally applicable within the prokaryotic world. However, this empirically designed concept is not encompassed by any of the, at least, 22 concepts described for eukaryotes. - The species concept for prokaryotes - Ramon Rosselló-Mora and Rudolf Amann
But why is so difficult to find an universal definition for species? The answer, because isn't applicable on Prokaryotes. So, so, simple!

5. Each Species has a kernel where Ring Species is a Fraud

Species are so conservative that consider the existence of Ring Species is not know how strong they are. Ring Species is a Concept that reality has been keen to refute.
Under what circumstances speciation in sexually reproducing animals can occur without geographical disjunction is still controversial. According to the ring–species model, a reproductive barrier may arise through ‘isolation by distance’ when peripheral populations of a species meet after expanding around some uninhabitable barrier. The classical example of this kind of speciation is the herring gull (Larus argentatus) complex, with a circumpolar distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. (...) Contrary to the ring–species model, we find no genetic evidence for a closure of the circumpolar ring through colonization of Europe by North American herring gulls. - The herring gull complex is not a ring species
A while back, when I said in the comments of an evolution post that there were no good “ring species,” a few readers asked me what I meant by that. “What about the salamander Ensatina eschscholtzii? Or seagulls in the genus Larus? Aren’t those good ring species?” My answer was that those had been shown not to be ring species in the classic sense, but there was still one species that might be a candidate: the greenish warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides around the Tibetan Plateau.
But now that one, too, has been struck off the list of ring species, leaving no good cases. Its removal from the class is documented in a new paper by Miguel Alcaide et al. in Nature (reference and link below), in a group headed by Darren Irwin, a professor at the University of British Columbia and including my next-door Chicago colleague Trevor Price. - There are no ring species

6. Natural and Sexual Selection are in systematic conflict where the Red Queen hypothesis is a fairy tail

Looking at the Trinitarian scheme of Eukaryotes, Natural and Sexual Selection have very different purposes. Natural Selection is the engine of evolution, promoting any mutation that reveals to be an advantage to the fitness of the Species. On the other hand, Sexual Selection purpose is to conserve the Species Kernel at all cost, even from the newcomer gene that supposedly will increase its fitness. In this way, species is forced by Natural Selection to accept the newcomer, never received by open harms.

For over a century, the paradigm has been that sex invariably increases genetic variation, despite many renowned biologists asserting that sex decreases most genetic variation. Sex is usually perceived as the source of additive genetic variance that drives eukaryotic evolution vis-à-vis adaptation and Fisher's fundamental theorem. However, evidence for sex decreasing genetic variation appears in ecology, paleontology, population genetics, and cancer biology. The common thread among many of these disciplines is that sex acts like a coarse filter, weeding out major changes, such as chromosomal rearrangements (that are almost always deleterious), but letting minor variation, such as changes at the nucleotide or gene level (that are often neutral), flow through the sexual sieve. Sex acts as a constraint on genomic and epigenetic variation, thereby limiting adaptive evolution. The diverse reasons for sex reducing genetic variation (especially at the genome level) and slowing down evolution may provide a sufficient benefit to offset the famed costs of sex.- Sex reduces genetic variation: a multidisciplinary review.

Just to finish, this trinity I talk about is not the Holly one, is just about the scheme, nevertheless, trinity is applicable for many other realities, proving its power as a tool for interpretation!

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