Sunday, December 28, 2014

From Flatness to Trinity a depart from the Materialistic view

This is a Recap about what this Blog is about. From the multiple posts a try to call attention to the restriction of the pure materialistic view that science has today, mainly in the domain of Biology. The Richard Dawkins book The Selfish Gene is a very good example of that, is a deepening into the material, from Organisms to its Genes, never embracing nothing that isn't materialistic...

The day that this materialistic Flatness view changes to a Trinitarian one, everything will become clear, until then, questions like, why sex is so dominant in Eukaryotes, or, do Species exist, will continue to be a mystery!

So, the points that this Blog is about are the following:

1. Species are a Product of Evolution restricted to Eukaryotes

It's admitted that the origin of Eukaryotes is the biggest milestones in evolution since life exists in the planet. It's also recognized that Sexual Selection appeared shortly after the beginning of Eukaryotic life. This form of Speciation is unique, and so unique that only now we start to give the right answer about the reality of Species. Despite many skepticism that persists, you only need to search for the question "are species real?" to find many scientific articles with the absolutely right answer:
"Claridge and I agree that the entities we call species are real biological units." - Species Are Not Uniquely Real Biological Entities, Brent D. Mishler
But what it means REAL, real means real as an Organism is, it means that despite not being material it exists and exerts power and control in a way that no Organism ever could. Well, with Species Natural Selection acts no more on Organisms, it acts on this new entity we call Species. But what works on Organisms if not Natural Selection? Sexual Selection does, in a way that protects Species from deviation, allowing the existence of extremely complex organisms despite low replication fidelity, and in this sense we have the beginning of a new Scheme, the Trinitarian scheme.

You just need to recognize this to understand and have answers to questions that otherwise you will never do.

2. Species are the Physical and Psychological blueprint of its Organisms

With this new trinitarian scheme, organisms are no more than the Species infrastructure, in its relationship with the environment. So when we talk in Physical and Psychological we are always talking of Eukaryotes, as you may well know, the REALITY of psychology and species isn't applicable to Prokaryotes.

So, organisms actions, that are classified as irrational, are so because the flatness of the materialistic view, that sees only the organism self interest, and so, all rationality is centered in this materialistic organism. If you consider the Species best interests you realize that what at first sound irrational is absolutely rational, simple because Species and Organisms doesn't necessary share the same interests!

3. The Species Will overcomes the Organism Will

It's a little bit redundant this affirmation, because if something defines other something, the second one is the result not the cause. For example, if you consider that Species exist for more than 2.000 million years (Sexual Reproduction) and at the same time, Homo Sapiens Sapiens only exists for 200.000 years is easy to grasp the power ratio of 0,01%, and sure this is an overestimation, because in reality time will not change the power ratio. An infrastructure exists to be used...

4. Only Eukaryotes have Species, Prokaryotes don't

The actual common definition of Species haven't change and never will, because there are no Species outside Sexual Selection. So the definition of Species as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring will remain despite all the efforts to force species into Prokaryotes.
The species concept is a recurrent controversial issue that preoccupies philosophers as well as biologists of all disciplines. Prokaryotic species concept has its own history and results from a series of empirical improvements parallel to the development of the techniques of analysis. Among the microbial taxonomists, there is general agreement that the species concept currently in use is useful, pragmatic and universally applicable within the prokaryotic world. However, this empirically designed concept is not encompassed by any of the, at least, 22 concepts described for eukaryotes. - The species concept for prokaryotes - Ramon Rosselló-Mora and Rudolf Amann
But why is so difficult to find an universal definition for species? The answer, because isn't applicable on Prokaryotes. So, so, simple!

5. Each Species has a kernel where Ring Species is a Fraud

Species are so conservative that consider the existence of Ring Species is not know how strong they are. Ring Species is a Concept that reality has been keen to refute.
Under what circumstances speciation in sexually reproducing animals can occur without geographical disjunction is still controversial. According to the ring–species model, a reproductive barrier may arise through ‘isolation by distance’ when peripheral populations of a species meet after expanding around some uninhabitable barrier. The classical example of this kind of speciation is the herring gull (Larus argentatus) complex, with a circumpolar distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. (...) Contrary to the ring–species model, we find no genetic evidence for a closure of the circumpolar ring through colonization of Europe by North American herring gulls. - The herring gull complex is not a ring species
A while back, when I said in the comments of an evolution post that there were no good “ring species,” a few readers asked me what I meant by that. “What about the salamander Ensatina eschscholtzii? Or seagulls in the genus Larus? Aren’t those good ring species?” My answer was that those had been shown not to be ring species in the classic sense, but there was still one species that might be a candidate: the greenish warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides around the Tibetan Plateau.
But now that one, too, has been struck off the list of ring species, leaving no good cases. Its removal from the class is documented in a new paper by Miguel Alcaide et al. in Nature (reference and link below), in a group headed by Darren Irwin, a professor at the University of British Columbia and including my next-door Chicago colleague Trevor Price. - There are no ring species

6. Natural and Sexual Selection are in systematic conflict where the Red Queen hypothesis is a fairy tail

Looking at the Trinitarian scheme of Eukaryotes, Natural and Sexual Selection have very different purposes. Natural Selection is the engine of evolution, promoting any mutation that reveals to be an advantage to the fitness of the Species. On the other hand, Sexual Selection purpose is to conserve the Species Kernel at all cost, even from the newcomer gene that supposedly will increase its fitness. In this way, species is forced by Natural Selection to accept the newcomer, never received by open harms.

For over a century, the paradigm has been that sex invariably increases genetic variation, despite many renowned biologists asserting that sex decreases most genetic variation. Sex is usually perceived as the source of additive genetic variance that drives eukaryotic evolution vis-à-vis adaptation and Fisher's fundamental theorem. However, evidence for sex decreasing genetic variation appears in ecology, paleontology, population genetics, and cancer biology. The common thread among many of these disciplines is that sex acts like a coarse filter, weeding out major changes, such as chromosomal rearrangements (that are almost always deleterious), but letting minor variation, such as changes at the nucleotide or gene level (that are often neutral), flow through the sexual sieve. Sex acts as a constraint on genomic and epigenetic variation, thereby limiting adaptive evolution. The diverse reasons for sex reducing genetic variation (especially at the genome level) and slowing down evolution may provide a sufficient benefit to offset the famed costs of sex.- Sex reduces genetic variation: a multidisciplinary review.

Just to finish, this trinity I talk about is not the Holly one, is just about the scheme, nevertheless, trinity is applicable for many other realities, proving its power as a tool for interpretation!

Sunday, December 14, 2014

The Trinity of Suicide and Self Preservation

Today I will give an explanation for the contradiction between Suicide and Self Preservation. It's believed that Self Preservation is the ultimate instinct of any Organism, and when suicidal, there is a Special Math that explains it!

But first, it's important to have in the baggage of thinking a Trinitarian view of reality. Trinity is more than Biology, is a Natural Concept like Evolution, so you will see it in other fields, equally applied to Species as it is to Religion and Ideology.

It's important to notice, that Religion and Ideology are synthesis of the Species Will, were Species is the crude version of itself. With time, Human need for explanations and control of their environment, Species evolved to Religion, and finally, to its ultimate state of sophistication, Ideology. However, all the virtues and vicious they have come from the same source, Species.

So, there is the believe that the ultimate goal of Organisms is Self Preservation, were Organisms are Selfish entities like their genes.
"They are in you and in me; they created us, body and mind; and their preservation is the ultimate rationale for our existence. They have come a long way, those replicators. Now they go by the name of genes, and we are their survival machines.
― Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene
This book reveals an ingenious trick, because Organisms are very unpredicted for a Selfish model, he diverts attentions to Genes. The problem is that Genes and Organisms are at the same level, and so aren't the direct subject of Evolution (except in the case of Prokaryotes where there is only Natural Selection). So, if organisms are carriers of Genes, they would also have the ultimate Self Preservation objective. However there is a problem, Suicide. About it Dawkins says the following.
"The minimum requirement for a suicidal altruistic gene to be successful is that it should save more than two siblings (or children or parents), or more than four half-siblings (or uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces, grandparents, grandchildren), or more than eight first cousins, etc. Such a gene, on average, tends to live on in the bodies of enough individuals saved by the altruist to compensate for the death of the altruist itself."
It looks like for suicide to happen you need to have relatives and at the same tame be altruistic, because otherwise the math doesn't sum up! However the great majority of suicides have nothing to do with altruism, they are in reality very selfish, and normally are caused by isolation rather than a familiar environment. So, is there any Selfish Suicide that Dawkins wishes to talk about?

Restricting the usefulness of genes or its success to familiar relationships is a restriction that comes hand to hand with the Genes as the Object of Natural Selection. Genes may be favored by Natural Selection, but in Eukaryotes the ultimate object of Selection is the Species not the Gene. And so, no matter the familiar relationships, the gene will be successful as it will be the Species that encapsulates it. As in the Fisher's geometric model Genes are like a knob in the microscope where is the microscope who is adjusted to the environment not the knob! Strange that Dawkins doesn't realize that, despite Dawkins have named Fisher "the greatest biologist since Darwin". So, genes are supported by Natural Selection as its Species is, and by Sexual Selection as their Organisms are! Restricting evolution to Genes, is the same as restrict evolution to tools in a Factory, or an Organization, some tools make organizations more successful, but the success of those tools is measured by the success of its Organization not the contrary! By other words, Genes are encapsulated by Species when concerning Natural Selection.

So, there is no Selfish Gene, there is only Selfish Species, something that goes beyond any familiar relationship, and so, the so called Self Preservation is only applicable to Species. Organisms and their Genes are ultimately committed to other thing, they are committed to Conformity. An organism is prone to commit suicide if that Conformity is no possible and the resultant frustration pushes him to it, or the glory of a better conformity, were the first case is selfish and the second altruist regardless any familiar relationship.

In reality suicide is so Endemic that a news about a study of CDC concludes that:
Looking deeper into the data, though, shows a second astonishing fact that actually is surprising: just how high the gun-suicide rate really is.  The preamble to the CDC’s National Vital Statistics Reports Vol. 60, No. 3 cites firearms as one of the “four major mechanisms of injury in 2009” (the year of the survey), along with poisoning, motor vehicles, and falling.   In that year, 59.8% of all “firearm injury deaths” were suicides, and 36.7% were homicides. - in Who Knew? The Leading Cause Of Gun Death Is Suicide
So much for Self Preservation! Is this Altruism or just a big family? Organisms have no right to Self Preservation, Species and its derivatives do.

CDC: Suicide a leading cause of death - Genetic altruism is definitely very strong

If Self Preservation was the ultimate goal of Organisms, there will be no need for Anti Suicide campaigns, or extremely care to remove from the market drugs that are very lethal, like the Barbiturates, that otherwise would be sold like popcorns thanks to a big demand, the same demand you have with those who have no restrictions to them.
Medical practitioners have a relatively high rate of suicide. Death entry data for doctors who died by suicide or undetermined cause between 1979 and 1995 in England and Wales were used to compare methods used for suicide by doctors with those used by the general population. Methods used were analysed according to gender, occupational status and speciality, to assess the extent to which access to dangerous means influences the pattern of suicide. Self‐poisoning with drugs was more common in the doctors than in general population suicides (57% vs. 26.6%; OR=3.65, 95% CI 2.85–4.68), including in retired doctors. Barbiturates were the most frequent drugs used. Half of the anaesthetists who died used anaesthetic agents. Self‐cutting was also more frequently used as a method of suicide. The finding that the greater proportion of suicide deaths in doctors were by self‐poisoning may reflect the fact that doctors have ready access to drugs, and have knowledge of which drugs and doses are likely to cause death. The specific finding that a large proportion of suicides in anaesthetists involved anaesthetic agents supports this explanation. Availability of method may be a factor contributing to the relatively high suicide rate of doctors. This fact might influence clinical management of doctors who are known to be depressed or suicidal. - in Doctors who kill themselves: a study of the methods used for suicide
 So, what is the ultimate Goal for Organisms, Survival or Conformity?

There is a problem, Species don't make Conformity easy, there are all reasons not to conform and almost no reasons to do so, essentially because there is a single Optimum where all the rest is noise. At the same time Organism heritage from Species a cocktail of pseudo benign feelings pushing them to conformity that in case of failure immediately switch to pain.

Suicide when not a Species tool is a lesser evil. The problem of knowing the causes of suicide is the same as knowing the causes of Biologic Diseases, to many causes for a single consequence. So, is not what causes suicide but what avoids it. Like a Conformist Organism, everyone that is different at the eyes of the Species is a potential problem for it, and the causes of that difference may be infinite. In this way Organisms may be stressed to the point of committing suicide, and species being only concern about conformity have no problems with this side effect. Humans in special are very complex and consequently need to be very well tuned Organisms, and so, their lives must also be very well tuned to a kind of Standard Plot.

In great extent, is the divergence of this Plot that causes Suicide, as a Study shows, those who commit suicide already have a suicidal story, proving a divergence start from that Plot to a point of no return.
In a study published in the November issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health, researchers at the University of Washington surveyed 883 young adults ages 18 or 19 about previous suicide attempts and learned that 78 — close to 9% — had tried to commit suicide. - Study: 40% of Kids Who Attempt Suicide First Try in Elementary or Middle School
Also, suicide may be a species tool in the case when it directly serves its interests, and we may have Altruistic situations that surely go behind those that Dawkins talks about. This is true for Species as it is for Religions and Ideologies. Organisms, Believers and Militants are no more than the needed infrastructure for a given standard Protocol. This protocol may demand them to commit suicide, and compliance is what is expected.

From religious martyrs, to feverous fighters its what they believe that sands still, regardless any voluntarism! So, Species, Religions and Ideologies may promote Suicide given the right conditions, with the ultimate goal of their Self Preservation.

Not surprisingly, Shame is an extensively explored feeling when it comes to Suicide. Like in Sex, its sole purpose is absolute conformity, and in this respect is much more powerful than fear has ever been.

One goal to have, is making better Ideologies supported by better technologies, to avoid unnecessary cruelty, recognizing that if conformity is the ultimate human purpose it should be achieved in the most agreeable way possible. Making so, we are creating a Plot which divergence is less likely.

Saturday, December 13, 2014

Overdominance: The Good, the Bad and the Untermensch

Overdominance also known as Heterozygote advantage, is a very good evidence of the concepts that I have been described. Those concepts are all together in the next picture.

As I have been writing, Species are the result of Natural Selection something like Diploid vs. Haploid Organisms, a result of millions of years of evolution, and that is why before Eukaryotes Species have never existed, because species are also the result of millions of years of evolution.

In this new scheme, Species are the repository of the organism blueprint, physical and psychological, so we may view the Species' Will like the Species' Organism.

Now the old Story, the Story of two Fathers and three Sons, those Fathers are Natural and Sexual Selection, the Sons are the Good, the Bad and the Untermensch! All but one are much loved by each one of their Fathers. They are treated in this manner:
  • the Good - Loved by Sexual Selection, he is in the Gene Pool from the beginning, he is the oldest one. Now and ever Sexual Selection has been taking care of him, is a relationship of profound love and absolute dedication that nothing can reach up;
  • the Bad - Supported by Natural Selection, he is the newcomer, an Intruder, he isn't flushed away by Sexual Selection because doesn't represent any real Entropy to be pushed away, and mainly, because Sexual Selection is permeable to Induction carry out by Natural Selection;
  • the Untermensch - The resulting waste of the Bad, its Entropy is unprompted by the Natural Selection and hated by Sexual Selection. Living in the cold with nothing to save him, is doomed to a path destined to him, a path that leads to persecution and eternal extinction, for ever and ever.
In a more techinal description, the Good is the Fixed Gene, the Bad the Recessive Gene and the Untermensch the Deleterious Gene.

Overdominance is the result of diploidity, a characteristic dominant in Eukaryotes organisms, so a modern trait in evolution, mainly concerning Sexual Selection. So simply explained, overdominance is the introduction of a new gene that has a better fitness than the existing one when paired with it (heterozygous), but is deleterious when paired with itself (homozygous). A good example is the case of Sickle-cell disease, the result of a gene that gives protection against Malaria when alone, but a disease when together. But this is just one example, there are many more examples of overdominance, of recessive genes that are diseases once paired with each together, and so never becoming fixed. The problem is that those examples are only the tip of the iceberg, as well put it in the Fisher's geometric model, in the presence of extreme complexity, evolution has to happen in equally extremely small adjustments, this means that those more fitted genes need to start as a recessive genes, giving room to deleterious homozygous combinations. This reality has been proven in a study titled Heterozygote advantage as a natural consequence of adaptation in diploids, where is stated that:
The larger range of adaptive mutations available to diploids comes with a catch, however; many of these adaptive mutations display heterozygote advantage, and thus will not simply go to fixation.
We argue that adaptation-driven balanced polymorphisms can be an important source of consequential genetic variation. In particular, we believe that the balanced polymorphisms predicted by our model can be associated with human disease. Some of the common disease variants could be mutations that are maintained at high population frequencies because of strong heterozygote advantage, although they are very harmful as homozygotes.
This proves that is the health of the Species that matters, not of its Organisms, a dichotomy that many refuse to view! So, the view of the Good, the Bad and the Untermensch is exclusive to the Species Eyes, organisms have no opinion of their own, because there is only the Species' Will.

This Will permeates all human culture, because is important to maintain the health that really matters, and humans act like actors of a preexisting plot, where conformity to this plot is their only purpose, over the lie of Self Preservation that in reality is only applied to Species. As another study guesses very well:
When you see a difference between your own opinion and that of others, the brain experiences an error signal,” - See more at:
Vasily Klucharev was able to see the physiology of the Species Will, but the real question is always missing, If the Species Health is all it matters, why it would support organisms Free Will? Mainly when this Free Will could be contradictory to the Species Will!

In this will, the only that really exists, the Untermensch needs to be pursued, and you don't need to look further to see this persecution. Albinos, a result of overdominance, are being so, like the next article shows very well.
In the rural areas of Tanzania, men, women, and children with albinism--a lack of pigment that makes them appear glaringly white--are waging an extensive human rights campaign against communities who routinely attack them for their hair or body parts, used in potions to attract wealth and good luck. -

This kind of persecution is heavily associated with superstition, the root of any religion, and that is why that despite all efforts of science to end superstition, it prevails, because this superstition is no more than the excuse that species give to organisms act the way they are supposed to. If you think that this is an isolated case you are wrong. Superstition relates to all situations of difference or non conformity with the standard. Witchcraft accusations against children is just one way of persecution, another is traditional Folklore, like Trolls or the Changeling, where the theme of the swapped child is common among medieval literature and reflects concern over infants thought to be afflicted with unexplained diseases, disorders, or developmental disabilities.

This folklore is transported to our days, in movies or pop icons, like one Troll of Rage Comic characters, were the Forever Alone, not surprisingly, is the most popular.

This and the successful Lord of the Rings are cultural examples of the Species Will against the Untermensch, where individuals are right in clamming innocence due to the fact of having no will in this matter (or any other).

Like Shame in Sex, that I talked about in a post before, the Untermensch is also wrongly associated to ideologies in particularly with Nazism, not realizing that Nazism doesn't borrow only its symbols from ancient folklore, like the Swastika or the SS symbol, it also borrow all the feelings already existing then and that continue to exist now, feelings that you may well guess having one single source.

These feelings that exist to be interpreted and followed by humans, are the ones that glorify all individuals with high levels of conformity, being under the Species Wing gives you a special aura.

Unfortunately Species are very picky and ruthless against non conformity, it has successfully been managing its "guardians" against it. So, in the so called civilized world, and despite being very civilized, the species guardians do their work as they do in Africa. And is not difficult to have news of some of them, now named Bullies. Yes in bullying may be some friendly fire, but we shouldn't delude ourselves, bulling has a very well defined purpose that is not just about young fellows as Workplace Bullying shows in a recent study, the victims are well profiled:
Over the years, much attention has been devoted to understanding counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and its related concepts. Less is known, however, about whether certain employees find themselves more than others to be the targets of CWB. To examine this issue, we tested a model that positioned CWB receipt as a function of employees' personality (neuroticism, agreeableness), their appearance (physical attractiveness), and the negative emotions felt toward those employees by their coworkers. Two studies using multiple sources of data revealed that disagreeable and physically unattractive employees received more CWB from their coworkers, coworker negative emotion felt toward employees was associated with CWB receipt, and the relationship between employee agreeableness and CWB receipt was due, in part, to coworker negative emotion. - Beauty, Personality, and Affect as Antecedents of Counterproductive Work Behavior Receipt
To be clear and rest no doubts:
In addition to personality, we examined physical attractiveness, positing that attractive employees would be less likely to elicit negative emotion in their coworkers and receive CWB than unattractive employees. Theories of social acceptance stipulate that characteristics valued by society include both communal qualities such as kindness and warmth (i.e., agreeableness) and superficial qualities such as beauty (Anthony, Holmes, & Wood, 20007). Indeed, research on bullying among school-age children has revealed that victims of bullying are more likely to perceived as physically unattractive by their peers (e.g., Sweeting & West, 2001; see also Olweus, 1978). Thus, by including personality (neuroticism and agreeableness) and appearance (physical attractiveness), our model acknowledges that in predicting the receipt of CWB, it likely is “what's on the inside” and “what's on the outside” that counts. - Beauty, Personality, and Affect as Antecedents of Counterproductive Work Behavior Receipt
So, while things continue to be seen as flat, while we ignore the trinity of the Eukaryotic model, we will continue to make the same mistakes, and search for causes in the wrong place.