The bad news about the human species is that our impulse to prejudge others predates our evolution from primates to humans, but the good news is that more recent evolution of the neocortex restrains our less noble impulses. Combining research from neuroscience and psychology, this collection of essays examines the question of whether we are born with biases based on race, gender, age, religion, and sexual orientation and whether we can learn to control ourselves and come to appreciate our differences. Contributors provide historical perspective on how science has served racism, including eugenics, and looks beyond the individual impulses to the institutional support for discrimination. The collection begins with scientists drawing on brain scans to examine the instinct toward bias and how we can mitigate those instincts and goes on to psychologists exploring the psychological roots of prejudice and highlighting tools to overcome bias without succumbing to the myth of color blindness. In the final section, social scientists ponder how we can learn through changes in cultural beliefs and social circumstances to appreciate diversity. A highly accessible, thought-provoking collection on racial bias. --Vanessa Bush on Are We Born Racist?: New Insights from Neuroscience and Positive PsychologyIn the traditional biological reductionism, there are the Genes and Natural Selection that explains everything, this way math is much more imaginative than biology. This flatness makes some people to continue to search causes in the wrong place, theories that point out to some kind of "Male Warrior" in the past, that explains genes in own genome that started some kind of self defense mechanism to protect us from different races. This is an example of the "Selfish Gene" way of thinking, with the gene as the explanation for everything as the result of a flatness philosophy...
Now the truth (thanks to our Trinitarian way of thinking regarding Eukaryotes)!
The dark skin of tropical peoples is likely to be an adaptation to the strong ultraviolet (UV) radiation near the equator, perhaps protecting against sunburn or degradation of folate. By contrast, the adaptive value of light skin is questionable. In particular, the relevance of vitamin D deficiency rickets as a selective factor has been cogently criticized. Population genetic studies on the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene (one of the genes responsible for normal human skin colour variation) also cast doubt on the role of positive natural selection in the evolution of light skin. Natural selection may favour dark skin everywhere, though to a lesser extent at higher latitudes. Darwin believed that racial differences in skin colour were caused by sexual selection. Available evidence suggests that in each society a lighter-than-average skin colour is preferred in a sexual partner. Such a preference would generate sexual selection for light skin that counteracts natural selection for dark skin. The observed latitudinal gradient in skin colour may result from the balance between natural and sexual selection. - Sexual selection as a cause of human skin colour variation: Darwin's hypothesis revisited.Darwin, despite its oldness, was much more smart that any Dawkins of our time could ever be! In the text above it's clear the inexistence of any evolutionary advantage to whiteness, more, there are many advantages for blackness, and that makes all sense accordingly to the Eukaryotic Trinitarian Scheme. However, for a flatness fundamentalist of genes like Dawkins, this is a paradox! How can be? How the fittest genes can be the segregated ones?
As I already told, there is a systematic conflict between Natural and Sexual Selection, the prejudice instinct is a reflect of the Species itself, and that comes from the first eukaryotes on the planet, more than 2.000 millions years ago.
In my post there are three types of genes, The Good, the Bad and the Untermensch, with the following meaning for each one:
- the Good - Loved by Sexual Selection, he is in the Gene Pool from the beginning, he is the oldest one. Now and ever Sexual Selection has been taking care of him, is a relationship of profound love and absolute dedication that nothing can reach up;
- the Bad - Supported by Natural Selection, he is the newcomer, an Intruder, he isn't flushed away by Sexual Selection because doesn't represent any real Entropy to be pushed away, and mainly, because Sexual Selection is permeable to Induction carry out by Natural Selection;
- the Untermensch - The resulting waste of the Bad, its Entropy is unprompted by the Natural Selection and hated by Sexual Selection. Living in the cold with nothing to save him, is doomed to a path destined to him, a path that leads to persecution and eternal extinction, for ever and ever.
With the start of Eukaryotes we have the Origin of Species and their Kernels. The main priority of species is maintain the respective Kernel, however when faced with strong Natural Selection pressure Polymorphisms may arrive despite the effort of Species against them.
So, is there also a kernel for Human species? Well, if you ask which is the Skin Color for that kernel you may answer the White one. Black color come as a Polymorphism, however, to see this, you need to see the full picture, you need to see the evolution of Primates.
Chris Smith: What colour would that ancestor have been?Species are all about standardization, and the Species Kernel is that Standardization! This is easily viewed in the palms hands of black people, or when they born, because all black people born white.
Nina Jablonski: Almost certainly we can be assured that that ancestor would have probably looked a lot more like chimpanzees than us. The ancestor would have had lightly pigmented skin covered with dark hair. When you look at all higher primates including chimpanzees, the rest of the apes and Old World monkeys, all of our closest cousins—this is the pattern that we see, light skin covered by dark hair; and what’s interesting is that all of these animals have the ability to develop a tan on the exposed parts of their skin. For instance, on their faces, and on their hands, so that that ancestor probably would have had the same ability to develop a tan on the exposed areas.
Chris Smith: It’s intriguing to think that we were white, went black, and that some of us have gone white again. Why did we lose our hair though? Why didn’t we just keep the hair if that worked well for that ancestor, and stay white? - Evolution of Skin Colours - Professor Nina Jablonski, Penn State University
Because the Species Will overcomes the Organism Will, there is the need of constant repression of the Species Will to be politically correct.
Most white Americans demonstrate bias against blacks, even if they're not aware of or able to control it. It's a surprisingly little-discussed factor in the anguishing debates over race and law enforcement that followed the shootings of unarmed black men by white police officers. Such implicit biases -- which, if they were to influence split-second law enforcement decisions, could have life or death consequences -- are measured by psychological tests, most prominently the computerized Implicit Association Test, which has been taken by over two million people online at the website Project Implicit. - Across America, whites are biased and they don’t even know itBut this isn't just in America or white people, like the following videos that also show the Species Will to whiteness:
Don't recognize de difference between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, don't see the paper of Species manipulating its Organisms, reducing everything to Genes, is a Blindness that the Scientific community should be ashamed of.
The reason that made humans turn white again, as soon as Natural Selection loose its force, was Sexual Selection repressing the Blackness that Species hates. And because Species controls the Human Will persons are naturally racists, independently of being White or Black (same kernel). The story that says that the cause of racism is the old colonialism, is the same story that says that Shame on Sex is due to Religion. All these feelings have nothing to due with Society but all with Species.
When an Indian person is questioned why it wants to be fair, normally says it wishes to marry thinking that darkness makes it harder. So, its all about Sexual Selection.
For every place you look, you see Species Standardization, like the Sexy son hypothesis that in a nutshell means the following:
The sexy son hypothesis states that females may initially choose a trait because it improves the survival of their young, but once this preference has become widespread, females must continue to choose the trait, even if it becomes harmful. Those that do not will have sons that are unattractive to most females (since the preference is widespread) and so receive few matings - Ridley, M. 2004. Evolution. 3rd ed. Blackwell Scientific Publishing, Malden, MA. (p. 330)
The new ideology of Selfish Gene that reduces everything to genes, that ignores the fundamental difference between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, that nowadays is fundamentalist to the point of recognize only Natural Selection, is the biggest regressions that science has ever have.
Without the abstraction of Trinitarian Eukaryotic Scheme there will never be any good explanation for all this "human" actions, because Biology is now like Math was before, without grasping Imaginary Numbers!